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Geography of Bangladesh

Bangladesh Related Topics

History of Bangladesh | Basic Information of Bangladesh |  Seasons of Bangladesh | Geography of Bangladesh |  Weather of Bangladesh |  Politics of Bangladesh | Religions of Bangladesh | Transportation System |  Cultural Activities | Dance and Music | Fruits and Foods |  Peoples of Bangladesh | Villages of Bangladesh | Nature of Bangladesh |  World Heritage | Bangladesh Information

Bangladesh is a low lying riverine country  bordering the Bay of Bengal between Myanmar and India. Lands are remarkably flat, low-lying, and subject to yearly flooding. Much fertile, alluvial soil is deposited by the floodwaters. Chittagong Hill Tracts is the only significant area of hilly terrain, constituting less than one-tenth of the nation's territory in the narrow southeastern panhandle of the country. There, on the border with Burma, is Mowdok Mual (1003 m/3292 ft), the country's highest peak. Small, scattered hills lie along or near the eastern and northern borders with India.


  • Total area: 144,000 square kilometers;
  • Land area: 133,910 square kilometers
  • Land boundaries: 4,246 km total; 193 km with Myanmar,  4,053 km with India, Coastline: 580 km.

Land distribution:

  • Arable land 67%
  • Forest and woodland 16%
  • Permanent crops 2%
  • Meadows and pastures 4%
  • Other 11%

Rivers and Lakes

Bangladesh is crisscrossed by rivers throughout the mostly flat territories of the country. They include hundreds of brooks and a good number of big ones. The Ganges (Ganga) known as the Padma below the point where it is joined by the Jamuna River, the name given to the lowermost portion of the main channel of the Brahmaputra. The combined stream is then called the Meghna .In the dry season the numerous deltaic distributaries that lace the terrain may be several kilometers wide as they near the Bay of Bengal, whereas at the height of the summer monsoon season they coalesce into an extremely broad expanse of silt-laden water. In much of the delta, therefore, homes must be constructed on earthen platforms or embankments high enough to remain above the level of all but the highest floods.


Traditionally, the year is subdivided into six seasons: Grismo (summer), Barsha (rainy), Sharat (autumn), Hemanto (cool), Sheet (winter), and Bashonto (spring). For practical purposes, however, three seasons are distinguishable: summer , rainy, and winter.


With a hot and rainy summer and a dry winter, Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon-type climate. January is the coolest month with temperatures averaging near 26 deg C (78 d F) and April the warmest  with temperatures from 33 to 36 deg C (91 to 96 deg F). The climate is one of the wettest in the world. Most places receive more than 1,525 mm of rain a year, and areas near the hills receive 5,080 mm ). Most rains occur during the monsoon (June-September) and little in winter (November-February).

Bangladesh is a victim to destructive cyclones, originating over the Bay of Bengal, in the periods of April to May and September to November. Often these storms can cause great damage and loss of life when these are accompanied by surging waves. About 500,000 lives were lost in Bangladesh when the cyclone of November 1970 hit. It was one of the worst natural disasters of the country in the 20th century.

In Dhaka the average temperature in January is about 19° C (about 66° F), and in May about 29° C (about 84° F).

Flora and Fauna

Principal vegetation in Bangladesh are Chittagong Hill Tracts, portions of the Madhupur Tract, and the Sundarbans (a great tidal mangrove forest in the southwestern corner of the country). Less than one-sixth of the total area is the wooded area of the country. Broadleaf evergreen species characterize the hilly regions, and deciduous trees, such as acacia and banyan, are common in the drier plains areas. Sundari (hence the name Sundarbans), gewa, sal (mainly growing in the Madhupur Tract), and garan (in the Chittagong Hill Tracts) Village groves inslude fruit trees (mango and jackfruit, for instance) and date and areca (betel) palms are the commercially valuable trees in Bangladesh. The country also has many varieties of bamboo.

Bangladesh is rich in fauna, including nearly 250 indigenous species of mammals, 750 types of birds, 150 kinds of reptiles and amphibians, and 200 varieties of marine and freshwater fish. The rhesus monkey is common, and gibbons and lemurs are also found.

The Sundarbans area is one of the principal remaining domains of the Royal Bengal tiger, and herds of elephants and many leopards inhabit the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Other animals living in Bangladesh include mongoose, jackal, Bengal fox, wild boar, parakeet, kingfisher, vulture, and swamp crocodile.

Mineral Resources

Bangladesh is not remarkably rich in mineral resources. The principal energy resource, natural gas, is found in several small fields in the northeastern part. There is a coalfield in the northwest and large peat beds underlie most of the delta. Limestone and pottery clays are found in the northeastern Bangladesh.

School and College Directory

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Additional information